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Proflactic effects of rosmarinic acid on spinal cord injury in rats

A. Taş, Ö. Yükselmiş, E. Deveci


Purpose: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes various neurological consequences that disrupt the structure of axons. The C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) acts in neuronal death by apoptosis has been demonstrated in experimental models. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound used for therapeutic purposes in many diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of Rosmarinic acid application on inflammation and apoptotic development after spinal cord injury.
Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (n: 24) were assigned to three group: control, SCI and SCI+ RA. All rats were fixed on the operating table after anesthesia, the skin of the thoracic region was opened with a midline incision and the paravertebral muscles were dissected and T10-T11 laminas were exposed. A cylindrical tube of 10 cm length was fixed to the area to be laminectomy. A metal weight of 15 grams was left down the tube. Spinal damage was created, skin incisions were sutured. 50 mg/kg rosmarinic acid was given orally for 7 days after the spinal injury. Spinal tissues were fixed in formaldehyde solution and processed for paraffin wax tissue protocol and 4-5 μm sections were taken with microtome for further immunohistochemical examination. Caspase-12 and CHOP antibodies were applied to sections. Remaining tissues were carried out in glutaraldehyde for the first fixation then in osmium tetroxide for the second. Tissues were kept in pure araldite and thin sections were taken for transmission electron microscope. Results: Values of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH), neuronal degeneration, vascular dilation, inflammation, CHOP and Caspase-12 expression were increased in SCI group compared to control group. Only glutathione peroxidase content was decreased in SCI group. In SCI group, disruption of basement membrane structure in canalis ependymalis, degeneration in structures of unipolar bipolar and multipolar neurons, and apoptotic changes were seen with increased inflammation in the piamater region and positive CHOP expression in vascular endothelial cells. In SCI+RA group, reorganization of basement membrane pill in canalis ependymalis were observed with mild Caspase-12 activity in some canalis ependymal and glial cells. Also, moderate CHOP expression in multipolar and bipolar neurons and glia cells were observed.
Conclusions: The application of RA has a significant effect on preventing damage in SCI. It was thought that CHOP and Caspase-12 mediated oxidative stress could be a guide in showing the potential and therapeutic target to stop the apoptotic course after SCI injury.


Spinal cord injury, CHOP, Caspase-12, Rosmarinic acid, rats

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